Biblioteca TACL

2563DIt Pb 25/A

Article 15(c) Qualification Directive (2011/95/EU a judicial analysis / EASO - European Asylum Support Office.- Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union, 2014.- 119p. ; 30 cm. - (Support is our mission)
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ISBN 978-82-9243-364-2 (Brochado) : Oferta


Preface. APPROACH TO INTERPRETATION. Holistic approach. Context of Article 15(c) in deciding applications for international protection. The roles of the CJEU and ECtHR. PART 1 : THE ELEMENTS. 1.1. Real risk of serious harm. 1.2. Armed conflict. 1.2.1. Internal armed conflict. Differentiation between defining internal armed conflict and establishing the level of violence. Basis of definition. Applying the CJEU definition. Must be two or more armed groups. 1.2.2. International armed conflict. 1.3. Indiscriminate violence. 1.3.1. CJEU definition of indiscriminate violence. 1.3.2. National Case Law. 1.3.3. UNHCR. 1.3.4. Typical forms of indiscriminate violence in armed conflicts. 1.3.5. The role of targeted violence. 1.4. By reason of. 1.5. Civilian. 1.5.1. Personal scope of Article 15(c): confined to civilians. 1.5.2. Approach to definition likely to reject IHL definition. 1.5.3. Differentiation between military and non-military. 1.5.4. Civilians = all non-combatants? 1.5.5. Does the term ‘civilian’ exclude all members of the armed forces and police? 1.5.6. Is mere membership of an armed group sufficient to exclude status of a civilian? 1.5.7. Indicators of civilian status. 1.5.8. Future-oriented assessment. 1.5.9. In case of doubt. 1.5.10. Former combatants and forced enlistment. 1.6. Serious and individual threat. 1.6.1. General risk and specific risk. 1.6.2. Concept of a ‘sliding-scale’. 1.7. [Civilian´s] life or person. 1.8. Geographical scope: country/area/region. 1.8.1. Identification of home area. 1.8.2. Home area as area of destination. 1.8.3. Protection against serious harm in area of destination. 1.8.4. Internal protection. PART 2 : APPLICATION. 2.1. Résumé: Holistic approach. 2.2. Assessing the level of violence - a practical approach. 2.2.1. Strasbourg case law. 2.2.2. National courts and tribunals. 2.2.3. UNHCR’s position. 2.2.4. Conclusions - non-exhaustive list of possible indicators. 2.3. Application of the sliding scale assessment. National case law. 2.4. Geographical scope: country/area/region. 2.5. Internal protection. 2.5.1. Article 8 (original and recast QD). APPENDIX A - Decision Tree. APPENDIX B - Methodology. Methodology for professional development activities available to members of courts and tribunals: Background and introduction; Professional development curriculum; Involvement of experts; Curriculum development; Implementation of the curriculum; EASO’s advanced workshops; Monitoring and evaluation; Implementing principles. APPENDIX C - Select bibliography. APPENDIX D - Compilation of Jurisprudence on Article 15(c) of the Qualification Directive (QD).